Changes in the environment require adaptation of those who inhabit it, at least to survive or ideally to strive. Advances in telecommunication and information technology have connected individuals and organizations, suppliers, customers, managers, employees, and stakeholders in the most diverse sectors of society virtually, globally, and around the clock (Kayworth & Lendner, 2002). This has resulted in an unprecedented level of interconnectivity and complexity in our socio-political and economic environment.
In this context, organizational leaders need to adapt too. The leadership paradigm for firms in the knowledge-oriented economy is multi-level, processual, contextual, interactive, generating emergent outcomes like innovation, learning, adaptability for the firm (Schneider, 2002). The demands of the global economy require that leaders can adapt to complexity and cultural diversity, and master the complex process of value creation through people, interconnecting minds, stimulati